During the heyday of the industrial revolution most of the 100 million acres of the original long leaf southern yellow pine forest was cut down. The logs were often transported to local mills via river. Along the way, as many as ten percent of them sank. These sinkers were usually dense young trees. Young trees have a higher percentage of live sap wood and therefore a higher percentage of water, making them heavier and more susceptible to sinking. Many of these logs were axe cut and some had a chevron cut into them to pull the turpentine out while they were still standing. The logs this wood came from were pulled from Cape Fear in South Carolina. Unlike heart pine from industrial timbers, sunken heart pine has been absorbing the minerals of the river bottom for over a hundred years. Black, green, brown and grey tones wash into the previously vibrant red and gold of virgin heart pine to create a muted, dark tone; while the characteristic grain of heart pine remains as bold as ever.